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A black crystalline form of carbon. Graphite is black and soft, with a layered structure that consists of hexagonal molecules arranged in wide sheets. It has a broad range of industrial uses; it is probably best known as pencil lead.

In the nuclear industry, it is used as a moderator in certain types of reactors because of its ability to slow down neutrons.

Carbon fibers are used as reinforcement in wind turbine blades or as a material for divertor tiles in thermonuclear fusion research devices.